HARVARD MODEL OF HRM PDF



Harvard Model Of Hrm Pdf

Harvard Models Human Resource Management Strategic. Models of Human Resource Management , The most familiar models defining what HRM is and how it operates are as follows. The matching model of HRM Fombrun et al (1984) proposed the ‘matching model’, which indicated that HR systems and the organization structure should be managed in a way that is congruent with organizational strategy., With reference to the Harvard model, the key problem is Banksia is the lack of HR department which caused other secondary problems such as inconsistency interpretation and application of ad hoc HR policies to occur. The long term strategy of setting up the HR department signifies that there will be people taking up responsibilities of HR.

HR Management Assignment help on Harvard HRM model – My

Covering all the bases multi-stakeholder HR HR Magazine. 07/11/2019 · In the face of rapid, disruptive change, companies are realizing that managers can't be expected to have all the answers and that command-and-control..., The Harvard Approach Source: Beer et al. (1984), Figure 2 - 1, p.16, Map of the HRM Territory. HRM Policy Choi ces Employee influence Human resource flow Reward systems Work systems HR Outcomes Commitment Competence Congruence Cost effectiveness Long - term Consequences Individual well- being Organizational effectiveness Societal well- being ….

HRM first emerged as a clearly defined concept in the mid-1980s when two models were produced by American academics. These were christened by Boxall (1992) as the ‘matching model’ and the ‘Harvard framework’. The matching model of HRM One of the first explicit statements of HRM was Beer et al (1984). Their framework is based on the The harvard model claims to be comprehensive in as much as it seeks to comprise six critical components of HRM. The dimensions included in the model are: stakeholders interests, situational factors, HRM policy choices, HR outcomes and long term consequences.

Using the Harvard HRM model to conceptualise the impact of changes to supervision upon HRM outcomes for different types of Australian public sector employees HRM first emerged as a clearly defined concept in the mid-1980s when two models were produced by American academics. These were christened by Boxall (1992) as the ‘matching model’ and the ‘Harvard framework’. The matching model of HRM One of the first explicit statements of HRM was Beer et al (1984). Their framework is based on the

Human resource management model 1. Human Resource Management Model Behind the recent development in the new HRM there are popular model known as Matching Model and the Harvard Model. 2. The Matching Model The Matching Model was developed by Fombrun. It suggest that people in the organization are managed according to organizational requirements The Michigan model is ‘hard’ HRM because it is based on strategic control, organisational structure, and systems for managing people. It acknowledges the central importance of motivating and rewarding people, but concentrates most …

The Harvard map of HRM. Based on Human Resource Management, 4th edition, by Alan Price The Harvard map of HRM. A large part of this section in Human Resource Management, 4th edition is devoted to the Harvard 'map' of HRM. This is probably the most seminal model of HRM and has had a major influence on academic debate on the subject. Human resource management model 1. Human Resource Management Model Behind the recent development in the new HRM there are popular model known as Matching Model and the Harvard Model. 2. The Matching Model The Matching Model was developed by Fombrun. It suggest that people in the organization are managed according to organizational requirements

Using the Harvard HRM model to conceptualise the impact of changes to supervision upon HRM outcomes for different types of Australian public sector employees HRM Models The defining features of HRM is popularly known as models. These models provide analytical framework for studying HRM. They provide characterization of HRM that establishes variables and relationship to be researched. Four most common models are : The Fombrun Model The Harvard Model The Guest Model and The Warwick Model All these

Publication details. Brunetto, Y, Farr-Wharton, R & Shacklock, K 2011, 'Using the Harvard HRM model to conceptualise the impact of changes to supervision upon HRM outcomes for different types of Australian public sector employees', International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 553-573. HRM Models - The Harvard Model The Michigan/Matching Model The Guest Model Model by John. The Harvard Model The Michigan/Matching Model The Guest Model Model by John Storey (1989) University. Hogeschool Inholland. Course. Human Resource Management 1 2812BM114Z. Academic year. 17/18

Two of the most widely adopted models of human resource management are the hard and soft versions. These are based on opposing views of human nature and managerial control strategies. This model is constructed with certain factors, which are high efficiency, high performance and high productivity of the organizations. Harvard Model: Beer, Spector, Lawrence, Mills & Walton (1984: 17) concentrated on the soft aspect of HRM and developed this “The Harvard model” where it works as a strategic map to guide all

Comparative Human Resource Management

harvard model of hrm pdf

HRM Models Fombrun Model Harvard Model Guest Model and. 3. The matching model of HRM: Fombrun proposed the ‘matching model’, which indicated that HR systems and the organization structure should be managed in a way that is congruent with organizational strategy. This point was made in their classic statement that: ‘The critical management task is to align the formal structure and human, HRM stands for Human Resource Management and this segment can be classified as under The Harvard Model, The Michigan/Matching Model, The Guest Model, Model by John Sorey - To get detail info, you.

The History Of Harvard Model Of Hrm Business Essay Example. Organizations develop and implement Human Resource Management (HRM) policies which are a reflection of their philosophy on how they intend to manage people. The factors outlined in existing HRM models, especially the Harvard and Warwick models, as, The Harvard model The Harvard model of HRM depicts the relationships between four categories of variables: such as, (a) stakeholder interests and situational factors (in the workplace and external environment), (b) HRM policy, (c) HRM outcomes, ….

(PDF) U N I T 1 0 MODELS OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

harvard model of hrm pdf

Study On The Harvard Model Management Essay. Developed By QUIN BEER LAWRENCE SPECTER WALTAN MILLS HARVARD SCHOOL 1984 Strategic map to guide all managers in their relations withemployees and concentrates on the human or soft aspect of HRM WOOD 1995 Strives at employee commitment not control babar.fazi@gmail.com 3 https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talent_management 07/11/2019 · In the face of rapid, disruptive change, companies are realizing that managers can't be expected to have all the answers and that command-and-control....

harvard model of hrm pdf


The Harvard model recommends that employees should be highly involved in the design of an organisation’s reward systems but observes that final decisions, besides meeting employees’ needs, must be consistent with the overall business strategy, management philosophy, and other HRM … This model is constructed with certain factors, which are high efficiency, high performance and high productivity of the organizations. Harvard Model: Beer, Spector, Lawrence, Mills & Walton (1984: 17) concentrated on the soft aspect of HRM and developed this “The Harvard model” where it works as a strategic map to guide all

Organizations develop and implement Human Resource Management (HRM) policies which are a reflection of their philosophy on how they intend to manage people. The factors outlined in existing HRM models, especially the Harvard and Warwick models, as HRM Models - The Harvard Model The Michigan/Matching Model The Guest Model Model by John. The Harvard Model The Michigan/Matching Model The Guest Model Model by John Storey (1989) University. Hogeschool Inholland. Course. Human Resource Management 1 2812BM114Z. Academic year. 17/18

harmony and hence promote the output. The Harvard model of HRM sees employees as resources. With respect to how these HRM models view the management of human resources in relation to organizational performance each has its own view. Starting with the Harvard Business School Model and the 02/08/2012 · Harvard Model of HRM : Harvard Model of HRM Harvard model is based upon situational factors and stakeholder interests Situational factors are not within the organization’s control, such as, legal, environmental and trade unions Stakeholder interests are factors which are influenced by any person or body with a vested interest in the

5. The Harvard Framework for HRM. The Harvard framework for HRM is an HR model comprised of six components. The model starts, on the left, with stakeholder interest. These stakeholders include shareholders, management, employee groups, government, and more. These interests define the HRM policies. Two of the most widely adopted models of human resource management are the hard and soft versions. These are based on opposing views of human nature and managerial control strategies.

Harvard Models - Free download as Word Doc (.doc), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. harvard model of international human resource management This approach of HRM is called the Harvard model or Soft HRM. Unfortunately, neither of the two approaches of HRM work perfectly as neither represents reality because people can behave in different ways and cannot be categorized as machines or responsible fellows merely. This means that a good manager must adhere to a style of his own taking

The Harvard model recommends that employees should be highly involved in the design of an organisation’s reward systems but observes that final decisions, besides meeting employees’ needs, must be consistent with the overall business strategy, management philosophy, and other HRM … Using the Harvard HRM model to conceptualise the impact of changes to supervision upon HRM outcomes for different types of Australian public sector employees

07/11/2019 · In the face of rapid, disruptive change, companies are realizing that managers can't be expected to have all the answers and that command-and-control... The Harvard map of HRM. Based on Human Resource Management, 4th edition, by Alan Price The Harvard map of HRM. A large part of this section in Human Resource Management, 4th edition is devoted to the Harvard 'map' of HRM. This is probably the most seminal model of HRM and has had a major influence on academic debate on the subject.

What is the difference between Harvard and Michigan models

harvard model of hrm pdf

Human Resource Management (HRM) of non-regular workers in. The Harvard Approach Source: Beer et al. (1984), Figure 2 - 1, p.16, Map of the HRM Territory. HRM Policy Choi ces Employee influence Human resource flow Reward systems Work systems HR Outcomes Commitment Competence Congruence Cost effectiveness Long - term Consequences Individual well- being Organizational effectiveness Societal well- being …, Using the Harvard HRM model to conceptualise the impact of changes to supervision upon HRM outcomes for different types of Australian public sector employees . Yvonne Brunetto BA, DipED, PhD. Associate Professor in HRM School of Commerce and Management, Southern Cross University P.O Box 42, Tweed Heads, NSW. 2485 AUSTRALIA ph: +61 255069373.

Human Resource Management (HRM) of non-regular workers in

The Harvard Model of HRM Management Essay. HR Management Assignment help on: Harvard HRM model. 1. Introduction. The entire research project is prepared on the basis of the topic related to “The Harvard Model of HRM is a commonly used theoretical framework in the application and practice of HRM in organizations., Using the Harvard HRM model to conceptualise the impact of changes to supervision upon HRM outcomes for different types of Australian public sector employees . Yvonne Brunetto BA, DipED, PhD. Associate Professor in HRM School of Commerce and Management, Southern Cross University P.O Box 42, Tweed Heads, NSW. 2485 AUSTRALIA ph: +61 255069373.

Models of Human Resource Management , The most familiar models defining what HRM is and how it operates are as follows. The matching model of HRM Fombrun et al (1984) proposed the ‘matching model’, which indicated that HR systems and the organization structure should be managed in a way that is congruent with organizational strategy. The Harvard map of HRM. Based on Human Resource Management, 4th edition, by Alan Price The Harvard map of HRM. A large part of this section in Human Resource Management, 4th edition is devoted to the Harvard 'map' of HRM. This is probably the most seminal model of HRM and has had a major influence on academic debate on the subject.

Using the Harvard HRM model to conceptualise the impact of changes to supervision upon HRM outcomes for different types of Australian public sector employees The Harvard Approach Source: Beer et al. (1984), Figure 2 - 1, p.16, Map of the HRM Territory. HRM Policy Choi ces Employee influence Human resource flow Reward systems Work systems HR Outcomes Commitment Competence Congruence Cost effectiveness Long - term Consequences Individual well- being Organizational effectiveness Societal well- being …

The Harvard Approach Source: Beer et al. (1984), Figure 2 - 1, p.16, Map of the HRM Territory. HRM Policy Choi ces Employee influence Human resource flow Reward systems Work systems HR Outcomes Commitment Competence Congruence Cost effectiveness Long - term Consequences Individual well- being Organizational effectiveness Societal well- being … HRM Models - The Harvard Model The Michigan/Matching Model The Guest Model Model by John. The Harvard Model The Michigan/Matching Model The Guest Model Model by John Storey (1989) University. Hogeschool Inholland. Course. Human Resource Management 1 2812BM114Z. Academic year. 17/18

Using the Harvard HRM model to conceptualise the impact of changes to supervision upon HRM outcomes for different types of Australian public sector employees Two of the most widely adopted models of human resource management are the hard and soft versions. These are based on opposing views of human nature and managerial control strategies.

Chapter 03 Models and Theories of Human Resource Management Introduction History of HRM theory was originated virtually in 1980 when the Harvard School introduced the Harvard … Human resource management model 1. Human Resource Management Model Behind the recent development in the new HRM there are popular model known as Matching Model and the Harvard Model. 2. The Matching Model The Matching Model was developed by Fombrun. It suggest that people in the organization are managed according to organizational requirements

The Harvard and Michigan models are the finest famous early interpretations of HRM. The Michigan model is also recognized as the 'matching model' or 'best-fit' approach to human resource management. Nowadays, it is clear that aspects of CSR are increasingly affecting HRM and business operations strategy, as a whole, so it is significant to understand and estimate, what HRM model is suitable for modern business and how it fits into the knowledge management aspects. 4. Incorporation of KM and CSR in company human resource management models

harmony and hence promote the output. The Harvard model of HRM sees employees as resources. With respect to how these HRM models view the management of human resources in relation to organizational performance each has its own view. Starting with the Harvard Business School Model and the The Harvard model The Harvard model of HRM depicts the relationships between four categories of variables: such as, (a) stakeholder interests and situational factors (in the workplace and external environment), (b) HRM policy, (c) HRM outcomes, …

Nowadays, it is clear that aspects of CSR are increasingly affecting HRM and business operations strategy, as a whole, so it is significant to understand and estimate, what HRM model is suitable for modern business and how it fits into the knowledge management aspects. 4. Incorporation of KM and CSR in company human resource management models the firm. According to the Harvard Model, once the appropriate HRM policy choices have been made, HR outcomes of commitment, competence, congruence and cost-effectiveness should occur (Beer et al., 1984). This model suggests a ‘soft’ approach to HRM is required if employees are to benefit from HRM practices.

Publication details. Brunetto, Y, Farr-Wharton, R & Shacklock, K 2011, 'Using the Harvard HRM model to conceptualise the impact of changes to supervision upon HRM outcomes for different types of Australian public sector employees', International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 553-573. The Harvard map of HRM. Based on Human Resource Management, 4th edition, by Alan Price The Harvard map of HRM. A large part of this section in Human Resource Management, 4th edition is devoted to the Harvard 'map' of HRM. This is probably the most seminal model of HRM and has had a major influence on academic debate on the subject.

HRM Models The defining features of HRM is popularly known as models. These models provide analytical framework for studying HRM. They provide characterization of HRM that establishes variables and relationship to be researched. Four most common models are : The Fombrun Model The Harvard Model The Guest Model and The Warwick Model All these Human resource management model 1. Human Resource Management Model Behind the recent development in the new HRM there are popular model known as Matching Model and the Harvard Model. 2. The Matching Model The Matching Model was developed by Fombrun. It suggest that people in the organization are managed according to organizational requirements

This approach of HRM is called the Harvard model or Soft HRM. Unfortunately, neither of the two approaches of HRM work perfectly as neither represents reality because people can behave in different ways and cannot be categorized as machines or responsible fellows merely. This means that a good manager must adhere to a style of his own taking harmony and hence promote the output. The Harvard model of HRM sees employees as resources. With respect to how these HRM models view the management of human resources in relation to organizational performance each has its own view. Starting with the Harvard Business School Model and the

The Harvard model The Harvard model of HRM depicts the relationships between four categories of variables: such as, (a) stakeholder interests and situational factors (in the workplace and external environment), (b) HRM policy, (c) HRM outcomes, … Nowadays, it is clear that aspects of CSR are increasingly affecting HRM and business operations strategy, as a whole, so it is significant to understand and estimate, what HRM model is suitable for modern business and how it fits into the knowledge management aspects. 4. Incorporation of KM and CSR in company human resource management models

Using the Harvard HRM model to conceptualise the impact of changes to supervision upon HRM outcomes for different types of Australian public sector employees . Yvonne Brunetto BA, DipED, PhD. Associate Professor in HRM School of Commerce and Management, Southern Cross University P.O Box 42, Tweed Heads, NSW. 2485 AUSTRALIA ph: +61 255069373 Publication details. Brunetto, Y, Farr-Wharton, R & Shacklock, K 2011, 'Using the Harvard HRM model to conceptualise the impact of changes to supervision upon HRM outcomes for different types of Australian public sector employees', International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 553-573.

HRM stands for Human Resource Management and this segment can be classified as under The Harvard Model, The Michigan/Matching Model, The Guest Model, Model by John Sorey - To get detail info, you Harvard Models - Free download as Word Doc (.doc), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. harvard model of international human resource management

Comparative Human Resource Management

harvard model of hrm pdf

Discussion Paper Series. HR Management Assignment help on: Harvard HRM model. 1. Introduction. The entire research project is prepared on the basis of the topic related to “The Harvard Model of HRM is a commonly used theoretical framework in the application and practice of HRM in organizations., HRM Models The defining features of HRM is popularly known as models. These models provide analytical framework for studying HRM. They provide characterization of HRM that establishes variables and relationship to be researched. Four most common models are : The Fombrun Model The Harvard Model The Guest Model and The Warwick Model All these.

Is this one of the best HR models ever? David Griffiths PhD. Using the Harvard HRM model to conceptualise the impact of changes to supervision upon HRM outcomes for different types of Australian public sector employees, Using the Harvard HRM model to conceptualise the impact of changes to supervision upon HRM outcomes for different types of Australian public sector employees.

Human Resource Management (HRM) of non-regular workers in

harvard model of hrm pdf

Using the Harvard HRM model to conceptualise the impact of. 02/08/2012 · Harvard Model of HRM : Harvard Model of HRM Harvard model is based upon situational factors and stakeholder interests Situational factors are not within the organization’s control, such as, legal, environmental and trade unions Stakeholder interests are factors which are influenced by any person or body with a vested interest in the https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talent_management pdf. U N I T 1 0 MODELS OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (HRM. Michu Gogo. Download with Google Download with Facebook Ms. SHABNAM VARIOUS MODELS OF HRM The Harvard Framework Guest’s Model of HRM Best Practice Model Storey’s Hard and Soft HRM Patterson’s Model of HRM Best Fit/Contingency Model Unit 10 SHRM, Prepared By: Ms SHABNAM Theoretical Perspectives on HRM The HRM ….

harvard model of hrm pdf


THE PRACTICE OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT STATE OF THE PUBLIC SERVICE SERIES 20 . AN FORAS RIARACHÁIN INSTITUTE OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRA TION JOANNA O’RIORDAN JULY 2017 STATE OF THE PUBLIC SERVICE SERIES 20 THE PRACTICE OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT. 2. ExecutivE vecSmcxariycte1Satvecriyi.ereyE Executive Summary 4 1. Introduction 6 2. What is HRM? 7 3. Strategic HRM … Human resource management model 1. Human Resource Management Model Behind the recent development in the new HRM there are popular model known as Matching Model and the Harvard Model. 2. The Matching Model The Matching Model was developed by Fombrun. It suggest that people in the organization are managed according to organizational requirements

The Harvard Model (Beer et al., 1984) David Griffiths, PhD The Beer et al. (1984) “Harvard” model for HRM is one of the most powerful HR models I have come across, in terms of illuminating the HRM process flow - this being extremely useful when conducting a … Using the Harvard HRM model to conceptualise the impact of changes to supervision upon HRM outcomes for different types of Australian public sector employees

The Harvard Approach Source: Beer et al. (1984), Figure 2 - 1, p.16, Map of the HRM Territory. HRM Policy Choi ces Employee influence Human resource flow Reward systems Work systems HR Outcomes Commitment Competence Congruence Cost effectiveness Long - term Consequences Individual well- being Organizational effectiveness Societal well- being … The Harvard model The Harvard model of HRM depicts the relationships between four categories of variables: such as, (a) stakeholder interests and situational factors (in the workplace and external environment), (b) HRM policy, (c) HRM outcomes, …

The harvard model claims to be comprehensive in as much as it seeks to comprise six critical components of HRM. The dimensions included in the model are: stakeholders interests, situational factors, HRM policy choices, HR outcomes and long term consequences. The Harvard model The Harvard model of HRM depicts the relationships between four categories of variables: such as, (a) stakeholder interests and situational factors (in the workplace and external environment), (b) HRM policy, (c) HRM outcomes, …

The Harvard model The Harvard model of HRM depicts the relationships between four categories of variables: such as, (a) stakeholder interests and situational factors (in the workplace and external environment), (b) HRM policy, (c) HRM outcomes, … Organizations develop and implement Human Resource Management (HRM) policies which are a reflection of their philosophy on how they intend to manage people. The factors outlined in existing HRM models, especially the Harvard and Warwick models, as

Using the Harvard HRM model to conceptualise the impact of changes to supervision upon HRM outcomes for different types of Australian public sector employees Developed By QUIN BEER LAWRENCE SPECTER WALTAN MILLS HARVARD SCHOOL 1984 Strategic map to guide all managers in their relations withemployees and concentrates on the human or soft aspect of HRM WOOD 1995 Strives at employee commitment not control babar.fazi@gmail.com 3

HRM MODEL. The early HRM Model Devanna( 1984) emphasizes the interrelatedness’ and coherence of HRM activities. The HRM cycle in this model consists of four key components: Selection, appraisal, Development and rewards. (figure ). These four HR activities aim to increase organisational performance .The weakness of the model is its apparent perspective nature, it … HRM stands for Human Resource Management and this segment can be classified as under The Harvard Model, The Michigan/Matching Model, The Guest Model, Model by John Sorey - To get detail info, you

The Harvard model recommends that employees should be highly involved in the design of an organisation’s reward systems but observes that final decisions, besides meeting employees’ needs, must be consistent with the overall business strategy, management philosophy, and other HRM … HRM Models The defining features of HRM is popularly known as models. These models provide analytical framework for studying HRM. They provide characterization of HRM that establishes variables and relationship to be researched. Four most common models are : The Fombrun Model The Harvard Model The Guest Model and The Warwick Model All these

HRM stands for Human Resource Management and this segment can be classified as under The Harvard Model, The Michigan/Matching Model, The Guest Model, Model by John Sorey - To get detail info, you HRM Models - The Harvard Model The Michigan/Matching Model The Guest Model Model by John. The Harvard Model The Michigan/Matching Model The Guest Model Model by John Storey (1989) University. Hogeschool Inholland. Course. Human Resource Management 1 2812BM114Z. Academic year. 17/18

HRM Models The defining features of HRM is popularly known as models. These models provide analytical framework for studying HRM. They provide characterization of HRM that establishes variables and relationship to be researched. Four most common models are : The Fombrun Model The Harvard Model The Guest Model and The Warwick Model All these This approach of HRM is called the Harvard model or Soft HRM. Unfortunately, neither of the two approaches of HRM work perfectly as neither represents reality because people can behave in different ways and cannot be categorized as machines or responsible fellows merely. This means that a good manager must adhere to a style of his own taking

The harvard model claims to be comprehensive in as much as it seeks to comprise six critical components of HRM. The dimensions included in the model are: stakeholders interests, situational factors, HRM policy choices, HR outcomes and long term consequences. Models of Human Resource Management , The most familiar models defining what HRM is and how it operates are as follows. The matching model of HRM Fombrun et al (1984) proposed the ‘matching model’, which indicated that HR systems and the organization structure should be managed in a way that is congruent with organizational strategy.

Models of Human Resource Management , The most familiar models defining what HRM is and how it operates are as follows. The matching model of HRM Fombrun et al (1984) proposed the ‘matching model’, which indicated that HR systems and the organization structure should be managed in a way that is congruent with organizational strategy. Using the Harvard HRM model to conceptualise the impact of changes to supervision upon HRM outcomes for different types of Australian public sector employees

2.1 Strategic human resource management model 33 3.1 Formulation and implementation of human resource policy 45 4.1 Human resource planning model 65 5.1 Components of effective assessment in assessment centres 84 8.1 Systematic training 131 9.1 A model of psychological contract 146 9.2 Six frameworks of organisation of justice 148 The Harvard Approach Source: Beer et al. (1984), Figure 2 - 1, p.16, Map of the HRM Territory. HRM Policy Choi ces Employee influence Human resource flow Reward systems Work systems HR Outcomes Commitment Competence Congruence Cost effectiveness Long - term Consequences Individual well- being Organizational effectiveness Societal well- being …

This approach of HRM is called the Harvard model or Soft HRM. Unfortunately, neither of the two approaches of HRM work perfectly as neither represents reality because people can behave in different ways and cannot be categorized as machines or responsible fellows merely. This means that a good manager must adhere to a style of his own taking Publication details. Brunetto, Y, Farr-Wharton, R & Shacklock, K 2011, 'Using the Harvard HRM model to conceptualise the impact of changes to supervision upon HRM outcomes for different types of Australian public sector employees', International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 553-573.